Carlsbad Caverns

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    When I was a five year old, my parents and I went to Carlsbad New Mexico to see Carlsbad Caverns. It was an experience that stuck in my mind like glue. I remember it all as if it was yesterday. It would be sixty years before I returned to that area.  At my childhood visit, they had some of the walkways concreated but some where made of wood.  About half way down, they made an announcement that the lights would be going out and all children where to sit on the walkway for safety. When those lights went out, I’d never seen anything as black.  I remember my mother constantly comforting me by lletting me know she was holding onto me and wouldn’t let go.

After the lights came back on we continue our way down the path. I remember seeing a pool of clear water which contained fish.  The guide said they were blind from being in the black cave. Those fish are no longer there. They were not mentioned when I was there a few years ago, so I have no idea what became of them.

When we arrived at the last room open to the public, the park service was selling boxed lunches. I got a sandwich, chips and a Coke. Then my parents had a discussion on whether they wanted to walk out of the cave or ride the elevator. They decided to do the elevator. That was quite a sensation to my little stomach. The elevator didn’t seem very quick to me at the time. My last visit it moved just fine.

That evening we went to the Bat Cave and watch millions of bats turn the sky black as they emptied the cave to go on thier nightly foraging for food. That day so many years ago was a big adventure for that little girl.  I hope someday you are able to see this wonder. Below is information about Carlsbad with a few pictures. 

Carlsbad Caverns National Park is a United States National Park in the Guadalupe Mountains in southeastern New Mexico. The primary attraction of the park is the show caveCarlsbad Cavern.  Visitors to the cave can hike in on their own via the natural entrance or take an elevator from the visitor center.

The park entrance is located onUS Highway 62/180approximately 18 miles (29 km) southwest ofCarlsbad, New Mexico. Carlsbad Caverns National Park participates in theJunior Ranger Program.[3]The park has two entries on theNational Register of Historic Places:The Caverns Historic Districtand theRattlesnake Springs Historic District.[4]Approximately two thirds of the park has been set aside as awilderness area, helping to ensure no future changes will be made to the habitat.

Carlsbad Cavern includes a large cave chamber, the Big Room, a naturallimestonechamber which is almost 4,000 feet (1,220 m) long, 625 feet (191 m) wide, and 255 feet (78 m) high at the highest point. It is the third largest chamber in North America and the seventh largest in the world. The largest chamber in the world is theSarawak ChamberinMalaysia.[5]

Capitan reef

250 million years ago, the area surrounding Carlsbad Caverns National Park served as the coastline for an inland sea. Present in the sea was a plethora of marine life, whose remains decomposed into a reef growth.[6]Unlike modern reef growths, the Permian reef containedbryozoans, sponges, and other microorganisms. After thePermian period, most of the water evaporated exposing the reef to salts and sediment that encapsulated the reef. Tectonic movement occurred during the lateTertiary period, uplifting the reef above ground. Susceptible to erosion, water sculpted the Guadalupe Mountain region into its present-day state.[7]

Speleogenesis

Carlsbad Caverns National Park sits in a bed oflimestoneabove a layer of groundwater; below the groundwater are petroleum reserves (part of theMid-Continent Oil Field). At a time near the end of theTertiary period,hydrogen sulfide(H2S) began to seep upwards from the petroleum into the water table. The combination of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen from the water formedsulfuric acid:

H_2S + 2O_2 = H_2SO_4

The sulfuric acid then continued upward, aggressively dissolving the limestone deposits to form caverns.Gypsum’spresence within the cave is a confirmation of this process’s occurrence, as it is a byproduct of the reaction between sulfuric acid and limestone.[6]Once the acid bath drained from the chamber,speleothemswere able to grow within the cavern. Erosion processes occurring above ground created the natural entrance to the Carlsbad Caverns within the last million years. Exposure to the surface has allowed for the influx ofairinto the cavern. Rainwater and snowmelt percolating downward into the ground pick up carbon dioxide; once this water reaches a cavern ceiling, it precipitates and evaporates leaving behind a small mineral deposit. Growths from the roof downward formed through this process are known asstalactites. Additionally, water on the floor of the caverns can contain carbonic acid and generate mineral deposits by evaporation. Growths from the floor upward through this process are known asstalagmites. Different formations ofspeleothemsinclude columns,soda straws, draperies,helictites, andpopcorn. Factors like ambient air temperature and rainfall affect the rate of growth ofspeleothems, as higher temperatures increase carbon dioxide production rates within soil. Color ofspeleothemsis determined by the mineral that the formation is made of.

History

From a young age,Jim Whiteexplored the cavern with his homemade wire ladder. When he grew older, most people did not seem to believe such caves existed. He gave many of the rooms their names, including the Big Room, New Mexico Room, Kings Palace, Queens Chamber, Papoose Room, and Green Lake Room. He also named many of the cave’s more prominent formations, such as the Totem Pole, Witch’s Finger, Giant Dome, Bottomless Pit, Fairyland, Iceberg Rock, Temple of the Sun, and Rock of Ages.

The town of Carlsbad, which lends its name to the Cavern and National Park, is in turn named after theCzechtown formerly known by theGermannameKarlsbad(English spellingCarlsbad) and now known by theCzechnameKarlovy Vary, both of which mean “Charles‘ Bath[s].”

Until 1932, visitors to the cavern had to walk down a switch back ramp-sidewalk that took them 750 feet below the surface. The walk back up was tiring for a lot of visitors. In 1932 the National Park opened up a large visitor center building that contained two elevators that would take visitors to the caverns below. The new center included a cafeteria, waiting room, museum and first aid area.[8]

Legislative history

  • October 25, 1923 – PresidentCalvin Coolidgesigned a proclamation (1679-Oct. 25, 1923-43 Stat. 1929) establishingCarlsbad Cave National Monument.[9]
  • April 2, 1924 – President Calvin Coolidge issued an executive order (3984) for a possible national park or monument at the site. [10]
  • May 3, 1928 – a supplemental executive order (4870) was issued reserving additional land for the possible monument or park.[11]
  • May 14, 1930 – an act of theUnited States Congress(46 Stat. 279) establishedCarlsbad Caverns National Parkto be directed by theSecretary of the Interiorand administered by theNational Park Service.[12]
  • June 17, 1930 – PresidentHerbert HooversignedExecutive Order 5370reserving additional land for classification.[13]
  • November 10, 1978 –Carlsbad Caverns Wildernesswas established with theNational Parks and Recreation Act(95-625) signed by PresidentJimmy Carter.[14]

 

… a limestone cavern known as the Carlsbad Cave, of extraordinary proportions and of unusual beauty and variety of natural decoration; … beyond the spacious chambers that have been explored, other vast chambers of unknown character and dimensions exist; … the several chambers contain stalactites, stalagmites, and other formations in such unusual number, size, beauty of form, and variety of figure as to make this a cavern equal, if not superior, in both scientific and popular interest to the better known caves …

 

Named rooms

Rock of Ages in theBig Room, photo byAnsel Adams, c. 1941

On the tour route

Outside the entrance to the caverns.

Outside the entrance to the caverns. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Outside the entrance to the caverns.

Balloon Ballroom
Located in the ceiling above the main entrance hall, this small room was first accessed by tying a rope to a bunch of balloons and floating them up into the passage.
Bat Cave
A large, unadorned rocky passage connected to the main entrance corridor. The majority of the cave’s bat population lives in this portion of the cave, which was mined for bat guano in the early 20th century.
Bell Cord Room
Named for a long, narrowstalactitecoming through a hole in the ceiling, resembling the rope coming through the roof of a belfry. This room is located at the end of the Left Hand Tunnel.
Bifrost Room
Discovered in 1982, it is located in the ceiling above Lake of the Clouds. Its name refers to a Norse myth about a world in the sky that was accessed from Earth by a rainbow. The room was given this name because of its location above the Lake of the Clouds and its colorful oxide-stained formations.
Big Room or The Hall of the Giants
The largest chamber in Carlsbad Caverns, with a floor space of 357,469 square feet (33,210 m2).[15]
Chocolate High
A maze of small passages totalling nearly a mile (1500 m) in combined length, discovered in 1993 above a mud-filled pit in the New Mexico Room known as Chocolate Drop.
Green Lake Room
The uppermost of the “Scenic Rooms”, it is named for a deep,malachite-colored pool in the corner of the room. In the 1940s, when the military was testing the feasibility of Carlsbad Cavern as an emergency fallout shelter, the Green Lake was used to look for ripples caused by a nuclear bomb test many miles away. None appeared.
Guadalupe Room
Discovered by a park ranger in 1966, this is the second largest room in Carlsbad Caverns. It is known for its dense collection of “soda straw”stalactites.
Hall of the White Giant
A large chamber containing a large, white stalagmite. Rangers regularly lead special wild-cave tours to this room.
King’s Palace
The first of four chambers in a wing known as the “scenic rooms”, it is named for a large castle-like formation in the center of the room.
Lake of the Clouds
The lowest known point in the cave. It is located in a side passage off the Left Hand Tunnel. It is named for its large lake containing globular, cloud-like rock formations that formed under water when the lake level was much higher.
Left Hand Tunnel
A long, straight passage marked by deep fissures in the floor. These fissures are not known to lead anywhere. The Left Hand Tunnel leads to the Lake of the Clouds and the Bell Cord Room.
Mabel’s Room
A moderate-sized room located past the Talcum Passage in Lower Cave.
Mystery Room
A large, sloping room located off the Queen’s Chamber, named for an unexplained noise heard only here. A small vertical passage at the far end connects it to Lower Cave.
New Mexico Room
Located adjacent to the Green Lake Room and accessed by means of a somewhat narrow corridor.
New Section
A section of fissures east of the White Giant formation and paralleling the Bat Cave. New discoveries are still being made in this section.
Papoose Room
Located between the King’s Palace and Queen’s Chamber.
Queen’s Chamber
Widely regarded as the most beautiful and scenic area of the cave. Jim White’s lantern went out in this chamber while he was exploring, and he was in the dark for over half an hour.
Spirit World
Located in the ceiling of the Big Room at its highest point (an area known as the Top of the Cross), this area is filled with white stalagmites that resembled angels to the room’s discoverers.
Talcum Passage
A room located in Lower Cave where the floor is coated withgypsumdust.
The Rookery
One of the larger rooms in Lower Cave. A large number ofcave pearlsare found in this area.
Underground Lunchroom
Located in the Big Room at the head of the Left Hand Tunnel. It contains a cafeteria that was built in the 1950s, and is where the elevators from the visitor center exit into the cave.

Tourist information

Carlsbad Caverns sees an average of 407,211 visitors every year.[2]The highest attendance seen in a year was 876,500 visitors in 1976.[16]As of 2011, a total 41,654,278 visitors have entered the park. Peak visitation typically occurs on the weekends followingMemorial Dayand theFourth of July. Free admittance for self-guided tours is often granted on holidays such as Martin Luther King, Jr. weekend, National Park Week, andVeterans Dayweekend.[17]Camping is permitted in the back country of the park, but a permit is required from the visitor center.

One of the extra events hosted by the park is the viewing of a bat flight. A program is given in the early evening at the amphitheater near the main entrance prior to the start of the flight, which varies with the sunset time. Flight programs are scheduled fromMemorial Dayweekend through the middle of October.[18]Optimal viewing normally occur in July and August with the advent of baby bats in addition to the normal migratory bats. Morning programs are also hosted pre-dawn to witness the return of bats into the cave. Once a year, a bat flight breakfast is held where visitors can eat breakfast at the park prior to the morning return of bats.

At various times throughout the year, star parties are hosted by the park at night. Rangers host informational programs on the celestial night sky and telescopes are also made available. These parties are often held in conjunction with special astronomical events, such as atransit of Venus.[19]

Recent exploration

In 1985 a very distinctive method of exploration was invented. In a dome area 255 feet (78 m) above the Big Room floor not far from the Bottomless Pit, a stalagmite leaned out. Using abalsa woodloop withhelium-filledballoonsattached, the explorers—after several tries over several years—floated a lightweight cord that snagged the target stalagmite. Once the cord was in position up, over, and back to the ground, a climbing rope was pulled into position, and the explorers ascended into what they named The Spirit World.[20]A similar, smaller room was found in the main entrance corridor, and was named Balloon Ballroom in honor of this technique.

In 1993, a series of small passages totaling nearly a mile in combined length was found in the ceiling of the New Mexico Room. Named “Chocolate High”, it was the largest discovery in the cave since the Guadalupe Room was found in 1966.

The Bottomless Pit was originally said to have no bottom. Stones were tossed into it, but no sound of the stones striking the bottom was heard. Later exploration revealed the bottom was about 140 feet (40m) deep and covered with soft dirt. The stones made no sound when they struck the bottom because they were lodged in the soft soil.

Other caves

The park contains over 117 caves.[21]Three caves are open to public tours. Carlsbad Caverns is the most famous and is fully developed with electric lights, paved trails, and elevators. Slaughter Canyon Cave[22]and Spider Cave[23]are undeveloped, excepted for designated paths for the guided “adventure” caving tours.

Lechuguilla Caveis well known for its delicate speleothems and pristine underground environment. Guano mining occurred in the pit below the entrance in the 1910s.[24]After gaining permission from the national park managers to dig into a rubble pile where wind whistled between the rocks when the weather changed, cavers broke through into a room in 1986.[24]Over 120 miles of cave passage has been explored and mapped.[24]It has been mapped to a depth of 1,600 feet (490 m), making it the deepest limestone cave in the U.S.[24]To protect the fragile environment, access is limited to permitted scientific expeditions only.[24]

[edit]Bats

English: Mexican (or Brazilian) Free-Tailed Ba...

English: Mexican (or Brazilian) Free-Tailed Bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, emerging from Carlsbad Caverns, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Mexican Free-Tailed Bats emerging from the natural entrance and flying to the nearest water

Seventeen species ofbatslive in the park, including a large number ofMexican Free-tailed Bats.[25]It has been estimated that the population of Mexican Free-tailed Bats once numbered in the millions but has declined drastically in modern times. The cause of this decline is unknown but the pesticideDDTis often listed as a primary cause. Populations appear to be on the increase in recent years but are nowhere near the levels that may have been historically present. A study published in 2009 by a team fromBoston Universityquestions whether large numbers of bats were ever present at the caverns.[26]

Many techniques have been used to estimate the bat population in the cave. The most recent and most successful of these attempts involved the use of thermal imaging camera to track and count the bats.[27]A count from 2005 estimated a peak of 793,000.[25]

The Mexican Free-tailed Bats are present from April or May to late October or early November.[28]They emerge in a dense group, corkscrewing upwards and counterclockwise, usually starting around sunset and lasting about three hours.[29](Jim White decided to investigate the caverns when he saw the bats from a distance and at first thought they were a volcano or a whirlwind.)[30]Every early evening from Memorial Day weekend to mid October (with possible exceptions for bad weather), a ranger gives a talk on the bats while visitors sitting in the amphitheater wait to watch the bats come out.[28]

 

 

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